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UI Controls

UI controls are elements that can perform an action (or "do something").

UI controls are links and form elements by default. However scripting can transform any element into a UI control.


Without colour, UI controls (specifically links) must be visually evident (e.g. text decoration or using layout).

Focus and input

Focus exclusively activates a UI control for use by the user. Losing focus deactivates the UI control.

Input occurs when a user changes the value of the active UI control by interacting with it.

When using UI controls with a keyboard,

  • Changing focus is always available to the user (no trapping).
  • Receiving focus is always available for all UI controls.
  • A visual focus indicator is exclusively visible on the active UI control.
  • The order that UI controls receive focus reflects the intended flow, meaning, and operation of the page.
  • Page context must not change when a UI control receives focus or input.

Note: By default, HTML UI controls which have not been modified by JavaScript will satisfy focus and input requirements.

Event handlers (JavaScript)

Event handlers are special methods executed in JavaScript when a user activates or interacts with an UI control.

When using JavaScript, event handlers must be:

  • Independent (onFocus, onBlur, onSelect, onChange, and onClick)
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